Lakshmi Manogna Chintalacheruvu1, Trudy Shaw2, Avanija Buddam1, Osama Diab1, Thamer Kassim1, Sandeep Mukherjee1, Henry T. Lynch1
1) Creighton University Medical Center;
2) Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA
Gastrointestinal cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes constitute about 5-10% of all cancers. About 20-25% of undiagnosed cases have a possible hereditary component, which is not yet established. In the last few decades, the advance in genomics has led to the discovery of multiple cancer predisposition genes in gastrointestinal cancer. Physicians should be aware of these syndromes to identify high-risk patients and offer genetic testing to prevent cancer death. In this review, we describe clinical manifestations, genetic testing and its challenges, diagnosis and management of the major hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes. Key words: Hereditary gastrointestinal cancer − Lynch syndrome − FAP − FAMMM − HDGC. Abbreviations: ACG: American College of Gastroenterology; AFAP: attenuated FAP; APC: adenomatous polyposis coli; CDH1: E-cadherin; CHRPE: congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium; CRC: colorectal cancer; FAMMM: Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma; FAP: Familial adenomatous polyposis; GC: gastric cancer; HDGC: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer; IHC: immunohistochemical; IPAA: ileal pouch–anal anastomosis; IRA: ileorectal anastomosis; MSI: microsatellite instability; MMR: mismatch repair; miRNA: micro RNA.