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Refractory Anaemia Secondary to Small Bowel Angioectasias – Comparison between Endotherapy Alone versus Combination with Somatostatin Analogues

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Stefania Chetcuti Zammit, Reena Sidhu, David Sanders

Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15403/jgld.2014.1121.264.zam

Background & Aims: Patients with small bowel angioectasias (SBAs) can be difficult to manage as they are generally elderly with multiple co-morbidities. Angioectasias are multiple and tend to recur. Argon plasma coagulation (APC), despite being a commonly used method to treat these patients has an associated persistent rate of re-bleeding necessitating additional treatment to manage these patients.
Methods: All patients with refractory iron deficiency anaemia secondary to SBAs were retrospectively subdivided into two groups. Patients in group 1 were managed with double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) and APC alone and those in group 2 received Lanreotide in addition to DBE and APC.
Results: A total of 49 patients were included in this study: group 1: 37 patients (75.5%), group 2: 12 patients (24.5%). All had significant comorbidities and the mean duration of anaemia was 114.3, SD 307.0 months. Significant improvements in haemoglobin (Hb) (11g/L vs 3.2g/L p=0.043), transfusion requirements per month (0.8 vs 4.7 p=0.052) and mean bleeding episodes (1.08 vs 2.6 p=0.032) were demonstrated in group 2 when compared to group 1. One patient developed symptomatic gallstone disease and one patient stopped Lanreotide due to a lack of response.
Conclusions: This is the first study comparing endotherapy to a combination of endotherapy and pharmacotherapy. It shows a significantly better outcome in patients receiving a combination of endotherapy and Lanreotide. Lanreotide can be a safe additional treatment in patients not responding to APC alone.
Key words: Argon plasma coagulation (APC) – double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) – Lanreotide – small bowel bleeding.
Abbreviations: APC: argon plasma coagulation; CE: capsule endoscopy; DBE double balloon enteroscopy; Hb: hemoglobin; OGIB: over gastrointestinal bleeding; SBAs: small bowel angioectasias.