The simultaneous occurrence of two rare conditions in a single patient is uncommon. We report the case of a patient with rectal actinomycosis covering an anorectal melanoma (both infrequent conditions), the last one being later recognized, only after surgical excision. We underline here the role of thinking "outside the box" when an unusual situation is experienced.


rectal actinomycosis, anorectal melanoma, rectal surgery