Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Gallbladder Interventions: a Review of the Current Literature
Interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a rapidly expanding field with a wide variety of indications, including different drainage procedures and delivery of locoregional treatment mainly for pancreatic solid tumors. Transgastric or transduodenal gallbladder drainage in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis or biliary decompression in patients with unresectable distal biliary malignant obstruction who failed endoscopic retrograde colangiography is one of the newest areas of EUS-guided intervention. The large-caliber lumen apposing metal stents placed during these procedures allow direct endoscopic gallbladder access and the possibility of performing gallstone treatment or resection of mucosal polyps. The current review presents the indications of endoscopic gallbladder interventions and discusses the results of available studies, foreseeing future potential applications.