Portal Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease Significantly Increase the Risk of Early Unplanned Readmissions in GAVE- Related Admissions
Background & Aims: Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is an uncommon cause of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that is characterized by dilation of blood vessels in the antrum of the stomach. Various co-morbidities are associated with the development of GAVE, but the impact of co-morbidities on unplanned GAVE readmissions is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the national incidence, 30-day mortality rate, and 30-day readmissions related to GAVE. Secondary outcomes were evaluation of predictors of early readmission, hospital length of stay (LOS) and total hospitalization charges.
Methods: Using the 2016 National Readmission Database, we analyzed discharges for GAVE. ICD-10 CM codes were utilized to identify associated comorbidities and inpatient procedures during the index admission. 30-day readmissions were identified for GAVE. Secondary measures of outcomes including LOS and hospitalization charges were also calculated. Risk factors for early readmission were also evaluated using multivariate analysis to adjust for confounders.
Results: A total of 18,375 index admissions for GAVE were identified. 20.49% (n=3,720) of the discharged patients were readmitted within 30 days. 30-day mortality of GAVE-related admissions was 1.82% (n=335). Early readmissions accounted for 20,157 hospital days along with $189 million in hospitalization costs. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of portal hypertension (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.37-1.93; p=0.0001) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.44-1.82; p<0.0001) significantly increased the odds of early readmission.
Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that the overall 30-day mortality rate of GAVE-related admissions is relatively low, but the 30-day readmission rate is significantly high. Patients with comorbid CKD and portal hypertension have a significantly higher risk of readmission. Further studies are required to determine if therapeutic interventions such as argon plasma coagulation or radiofrequency ablation during the index admission may prevent readmissions in these specific subgroups.