Treatment of refractory celiac disease type II (RCD II) and preventing the development of an enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma in these patients is still difficult. In this case report, we describe a patient with RCD II who received fecal microbiota transfer as treatment for a recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and remarkably showed a full recovery of duodenal villi and disappearance of celiac symptoms. This case suggests that altering the gut microbiota may hold promise in improving the clinical and histological consequences of celiac disease and/or RCD II.

Abbreviations: CDI: Clostridium difficile infection; EATL : enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma; FMT: fecal microbiota transfer; IEL: intraepithelial lymphocytes; RCD II: refractory celiac disease type II; TPN: total parenteral nutrition.


refractory celiac disease type II, Clostridium difficile infection, fecal microbiota transplantation